domingo, julio 25, 2010

La clase media norteamericana en descenso

Abrumadoras cifras comentadas por Michael Snyder acerca de la evolución social de Estados Unidos bajo las condiciones de la crisis. O mejor dicho, abrumadores resultados de la continuada corriente de externalización de la producción industrial y servicios hacia países ¿tercermundistas? de bajo costo. Snyder observa la degradación de condiciones de vida y reconoce en ella la consecuencia de la constante fuga de industrias estadounidenses hacia otros países (Europa del Este, Asia, Latinoamérica). Este no es un fenómeno sólo de su país, sino universal; tan universal que hoy comienza a aplicarlo China con respecto a las crecientes demandas de su fuerza de trabajo. La descripción de Snyder es extensible a cualquier país más o menos desarrollado:

The 22 statistics detailed here prove beyond a shadow of a doubt that the middle class is being systematically wiped out of existence in America.
The rich are getting richer and the poor are getting poorer at a staggering rate. Once upon a time, the United States had the largest and most prosperous middle class in the history of the world, but now that is changing at a blinding pace.
So why are we witnessing such fundamental changes? Well, the globalism and "free trade" that our politicians and business leaders insisted would be so good for us have had some rather nasty side effects. It turns out that they didn't tell us that the "global economy" would mean that middle class American workers would eventually have to directly compete for jobs with people on the other side of the world where there is no minimum wage and very few regulations. The big global corporations have greatly benefited by exploiting third world labor pools over the last several decades, but middle class American workers have increasingly found things to be very tough.
Here are the statistics to prove it:
•    83 percent of all U.S. stocks are in the hands of 1 percent of the people.
•    61 percent of Americans "always or usually" live paycheck to paycheck, which was up from 49 percent in 2008 and 43 percent in 2007.
•    66 percent of the income growth between 2001 and 2007 went to the top 1% of all Americans.
•    36 percent of Americans say that they don't contribute anything to retirement savings.
•    A staggering 43 percent of Americans have less than $10,000 saved up for retirement.
•    24 percent of American workers say that they have postponed their planned retirement age in the past year.
•    Over 1.4 million Americans filed for personal bankruptcy in 2009, which represented a 32 percent increase over 2008.
•    Only the top 5 percent of U.S. households have earned enough additional income to match the rise in housing costs since 1975.
•    For the first time in U.S. history, banks own a greater share of residential housing net worth in the United States than all individual Americans put together.
•    In 1950, the ratio of the average executive's paycheck to the average worker's paycheck was about 30 to 1. Since the year 2000, that ratio has exploded to between 300 to 500 to one.
•    As of 2007, the bottom 80 percent of American households held about 7% of the liquid financial assets.
•    The bottom 50 percent of income earners in the United States now collectively own less than 1 percent of the nation’s wealth.
•    Average Wall Street bonuses for 2009 were up 17 percent when compared with 2008.
•    In the United States, the average federal worker now earns 60% MORE than the average worker in the private sector.
•    The top 1 percent of U.S. households own nearly twice as much of America's corporate wealth as they did just 15 years ago.
•    In America today, the average time needed to find a job has risen to a record 35.2 weeks.
•    More than 40 percent of Americans who actually are employed are now working in service jobs, which are often very low paying.
•    or the first time in U.S. history, more than 40 million Americans are on food stamps, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture projects that number will go up to 43 million Americans in 2011.
•    This is what American workers now must compete against: in China a garment worker makes approximately 86 cents an hour and in Cambodia a garment worker makes approximately 22 cents an hour.
•    Approximately 21 percent of all children in the United States are living below the poverty line in 2010 - the highest rate in 20 years.
•    Despite the financial crisis, the number of millionaires in the United States rose a whopping 16 percent to 7.8 million in 2009.
•    The top 10 percent of Americans now earn around 50 percent of our national income.

Giant Sucking Sound
The reality is that no matter how smart, how strong, how educated or how hard working American workers are, they just cannot compete with people who are desperate to put in 10 to 12 hour days at less than a dollar an hour on the other side of the world. After all, what corporation in their right mind is going to pay an American worker 10 times more (plus benefits) to do the same job? The world is fundamentally changing. Wealth and power are rapidly becoming concentrated at the top and the big global corporations are making massive amounts of money. Meanwhile, the American middle class is being systematically wiped out of existence as U.S. workers are slowly being merged into the new "global" labor pool.
What do most Americans have to offer in the marketplace other than their labor? Not much. The truth is that most Americans are absolutely dependent on someone else giving them a job. But today, U.S. workers are "less attractive" than ever. Compared to the rest of the world, American workers are extremely expensive, and the government keeps passing more rules and regulations seemingly on a monthly basis that makes it even more difficult to conduct business in the United States.
So corporations are moving operations out of the U.S. at breathtaking speed. Since the U.S. government does not penalize them for doing so, there really is no incentive for them to stay.
What has developed is a situation where the people at the top are doing quite well, while most Americans are finding it increasingly difficult to make it. There are now about six unemployed Americans for every new job opening in the United States, and the number of "chronically unemployed" is absolutely soaring. There simply are not nearly enough jobs for everyone.
Many of those who are able to get jobs are finding that they are making less money than they used to. In fact, an increasingly large percentage of Americans are working at low wage retail and service jobs.
But you can't raise a family on what you make flipping burgers at McDonald's or on what you bring in from greeting customers down at the local Wal-Mart.
The truth is that the middle class in America is dying -- and once it is gone it will be incredibly difficult to rebuild.
Digamos, para morigerar el alcance de lo que Snyder dice, que la sociedad es algo muy complejo, y que no necesariamente las cosas siguen un rumbo lineal. China se está convirtiendo en el ejemplo más influyente de que ese modelo no es soportable de forma indefinida: la sociedad china se ha disparado en un monumental cambio social hacia mejores condiciones de vida: aunque estemos hablando de reclamos económicos que puedan sonar risibles en Occidente, esos cambios preanuncian que China seguirá sin duda el camino de Europa del Este. Lo que presenciamos es un gigantesco reacomodo de fuerzas, que probablemente se extenderá por décadas, que cambiará a todos, en Oriente, y en Occidente. Existe un reflujo que debe considerarse: está cuestionada la calidad de la industria china, que está produciendo el renacimiento de algunas industrias norteamericanas. Y la industria automovilística china ha visto aparecer un robusto movimiento de reclamo de mejoras.
Leído en Yahoo Finance,  comentando estadísticas publicadas por Business Insider. (Gracias a JJ Dubray).

Un comentario final sobre estas "estadísticas". En realidad sólo un pequeño número de las "22 estadísticas" están referidas a su orígen. El resto son aserciones no comprobables. Incluso dos de ellas (aumento de las quiebras personales y posesión de activos) no muestran lo que dicen: La posesión de activos pasa de 2600  para el 1% en 1962, a 3500 en 2001, mientras que el 40% inferior pasa de 0,3 a 1,8 (en miles de millones). Esto es, de 1962 a 2001 lo que se ve es un mayor aumento proporcional de la posesión de activos en el 40% inferior. Las cifras de quiebras muestran una caída importante entre 2006 y 2008, y las cifras de 2009 no difieren de las de trece años antes: nada que destaque un cambio importante en quince años, salvo el año 2005 en particular. Más allá de ésto, puede decirse que "razonablemente", ha habido un deterioro de la riqueza social en Estados Unidos.

No hay comentarios: